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Remove Excerpt. Removing question excerpt is a premium feature. The suprahyoid muscles raise the hyoid bone, the floor of the Origin and insertion of facial muscles, and the larynx during deglutition.

These include the digastric muscle, which has anterior and posterior bellies that work to elevate the hyoid bone and Origin and insertion of facial muscles when one swallows; it also depresses article source mandible. The stylohyoid muscle moves Origin and insertion of facial muscles hyoid bone posteriorly, elevating the larynx, and the mylohyoid muscle lifts it and helps press the tongue to the top of the mouth.

The geniohyoid depresses the mandible in addition to raising and pulling the hyoid bone anteriorly. The strap-like infrahyoid muscles generally depress the hyoid bone and control the position of the larynx.

The omohyoid muscle, which has superior and inferior bellies, depresses the hyoid bone in conjunction with the sternohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. The head, attached to the top of the vertebral column, is balanced, moved, and rotated by the neck muscles Table 5. When Origin and insertion of facial muscles muscles act unilaterally, the head rotates. When they contract bilaterally, the head flexes or extends. The major muscle that laterally flexes and rotates the head is the sternocleidomastoid.

In addition, both muscles working together are the flexors of the head. Place your fingers on both sides of the neck and turn your head to the left and to the right. You will feel the movement originate there. This muscle divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles when viewed from the side Figure 8. The posterior muscles of the neck are primarily concerned with head movements, like extension.

The back muscles stabilize and move the vertebral column, and are grouped according to the lengths and direction of the fascicles.

Xxx Xhmsater Watch Sex Videos Hot Philipinos. The plantar muscles exist in three layers, providing the foot the strength to counterbalance the weight of the body. In this diagram, these three layers are shown from a plantar view beginning with the bottom-most layer just under the plantar skin of the foot b and ending with the top-most layer d located just inferior to the foot and toe bones. The pelvic girdle attaches the legs to the axial skeleton. The hip joint is where the pelvic girdle and the leg come together. The hip is joined to the pelvic girdle by many muscles. In the gluteal region, the psoas major and iliacus form the iliopsoas. The large and strong gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus extend and abduct the femur. Along with the gluteus maximus, the tensor fascia lata muscle forms the iliotibial tract. The lateral rotators of the femur at the hip are the piriformis, obturator internus, obturator externus, superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, and quadratus femoris. On the medial part of the thigh, the adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus adduct the thigh and medially rotate it. The pectineus muscle adducts and flexes the femur at the hip. The thigh muscles that move the femur, tibia, and fibula are divided into medial, anterior, and posterior compartments. The medial compartment includes the adductors, pectineus, and the gracilis. The anterior compartment comprises the quadriceps femoris, quadriceps tendon, patellar ligament, and the sartorius. The quadriceps femoris is made of four muscles: The posterior compartment of the thigh includes the hamstrings: The muscles of the leg that move the foot and toes are divided into anterior, lateral, superficial- and deep-posterior compartments. The anterior compartment includes the tibialis anterior, the extensor hallucis longus, the extensor digitorum longus, and the fibularis peroneus tertius. The lateral compartment houses the fibularis peroneus longus and the fibularis peroneus brevis. The superficial posterior compartment has the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris; and the deep posterior compartment has the popliteus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus. Search for: Edited and Revised by Lindsay M. Chapter The Muscular System. Previous Next. Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to identify the following muscles and give their origins, insertions, actions and innervations: Axial muscles of the head neck and back Axial muscles of the abdominal wall and thorax Muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper limb Appendicular muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limbs. Muscles in Facial Expression. Muscles that Move the Tongue. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Explain the difference between axial and appendicular muscles. Describe the muscles of the anterior neck. Why are the muscles of the face different from typical skeletal muscle? The muscles of the anterior neck are arranged to facilitate swallowing and speech. They work on the hyoid bone, with the suprahyoid muscles pulling up and the infrahyoid muscles pulling down. Most skeletal muscles create movement by actions on the skeleton. Facial muscles are different in that they create facial movements and expressions by pulling on the skin—no bone movements are involved. Review Questions 1. Which of the following abdominal muscles is not a part of the anterior abdominal wall? Which muscle pair plays a role in respiration? What is the linea alba? What are some similarities and differences between the diaphragm and the pelvic diaphragm? Solutions Answers for Review Questions A D B Answers for Critical Thinking Questions Arranged into layers, the muscles of the abdominal wall are the internal and external obliques, which run on diagonals, the rectus abdominis, which runs straight down the midline of the body, and the transversus abdominis, which wraps across the trunk of the body. Both diaphragms are thin sheets of skeletal muscle that horizontally span areas of the trunk. The diaphragm separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities is the primary muscle of breathing. The pelvic diaphragm, consisting of two paired muscles, the coccygeus and the levator ani, forms the pelvic floor at the inferior end of the trunk. Which muscle extends the forearm? What is the origin of the wrist flexors? Which muscles stabilize the pectoral girdle? The tendons of which muscles form the rotator cuff? Why is the rotator cuff important? List the general muscle groups of the shoulders and upper limbs as well as their subgroups. Glossary abductor digiti minimi muscle that abducts the little finger adductor pollicis muscle that adducts the thumb abductor pollicis brevis muscle that abducts the thumb abductor pollicis longus muscle that inserts into the first metacarpal anconeus small muscle on the lateral posterior elbow that extends the forearm anterior compartment of the arm anterior flexor compartment of the arm the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves anterior compartment of the forearm anterior flexor compartment of the forearm deep and superficial muscles that originate on the humerus and insert into the hand biceps brachii two-headed muscle that crosses the shoulder and elbow joints to flex the forearm while assisting in supinating it and flexing the arm at the shoulder brachialis muscle deep to the biceps brachii that provides power in flexing the forearm. Solutions Answers for Review Questions C B B A Answers for Critical Thinking Questions Tendons of the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor, and the subscapularis form the rotator cuff, which forms a foundation on which the arms and shoulders can be stabilized and move. The muscles that make up the shoulders and upper limbs include the muscles that position the pelvic girdle, the muscles that move the humerus, the muscles that move the forearm, and the muscles that move the wrists, hands, and fingers. Gluteal Region Muscles That Move the Thigh Most muscles that insert on the femur the thigh bone and move it, originate on the pelvic girdle. Muscles That Move the Feet and Toes. Compartments of the leg. Intrinsic Muscles in the Foot. Which muscle produces movement that allows you to cross your legs? What is the largest muscle in the lower leg? The vastus intermedius muscle is deep to which of the following muscles? Which muscles form the hamstrings? How do they function together? Which muscles form the quadriceps? The hamstrings flex the leg at the knee joint. The rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius form the quadriceps. The quadriceps muscles extend the leg at the knee joint. Home Table of Contents Close Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Human Body 1. The Chemical Level of Organization 2. The Building Blocks of Matter 2. The Cellular Level of Organization 3. The Tissue Level of Organization 4. The Integumentary System 5. Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System 6. Bone Repair 6. Axial Skeleton 7. The Appendicular Skeleton 8. Joints 9. Muscle Tissue The Muscular System The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System The Special Senses The Autonomic Nervous System The Endocrine System Auricular anterior superior posterior Temporoparietalis. Occipitofrontalis occipitalis frontalis Orbicularis oculi depressor supercilii Corrugator supercilii. Procerus Nasalis dilator naris Depressor septi nasi Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi. Levator anguli oris Levator labii superioris Zygomaticus major minor. Orbicularis oris Risorius Buccinator. Depressor anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Mentalis Transversus menti. Veli palatini tensor levator Musculus uvulae Palatopharyngeus Palatoglossus. Genioglossus Hyoglossus chondroglossus Styloglossus Palatoglossus. Superior longitudinal Inferior longitudinal Transverse Vertical. Authority control TA Retrieved from " https: The erector spinae group forms the majority of the muscle mass of the back and it is the primary extensor of the vertebral column. It controls flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation of the vertebral column, and maintains the lumbar curve. The erector spinae comprises the iliocostalis laterally placed group, the longissimus intermediately placed group, and the spinalis medially placed group. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis , associated with the cervical region; the iliocostalis thoracis , associated with the thoracic region; and the iliocostalis lumborum , associated with the lumbar region. The three muscles of the longissimus group are the longissimus capitis , associated with the head region; the longissimus cervicis , associated with the cervical region; and the longissimus thoracis , associated with the thoracic region. The third group, the spinalis group , comprises the spinalis capitis head region , the spinalis cervicis cervical region , and the spinalis thoracis thoracic region. The transversospinales muscles run from the transverse processes to the spinous processes of the vertebrae. Similar to the erector spinae muscles, the semispinalis muscles in this group are named for the areas of the body with which they are associated. The semispinalis muscles include the semispinalis capitis , the semispinalis cervicis , and the semispinalis thoracis. The multifidus muscle of the lumbar region helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column. Important in the stabilization of the vertebral column is the segmental muscle group , which includes the interspinales and intertransversarii muscles. These muscles bring together the spinous and transverse processes of each consecutive vertebra. Finally, the scalene muscles work together to flex, laterally flex, and rotate the head. They also contribute to deep inhalation. The scalene muscles include the anterior scalene muscle anterior to the middle scalene , the middle scalene muscle the longest, intermediate between the anterior and posterior scalenes , and the posterior scalene muscle the smallest, posterior to the middle scalene. Muscles are either axial muscles or appendicular. Some axial muscles cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The muscles of the head and neck are all axial. The muscles in the face create facial expression by inserting into the skin rather than onto bone. Muscles that move the eyeballs are extrinsic, meaning they originate outside of the eye and insert onto it. Tongue muscles are both extrinsic and intrinsic. The genioglossus depresses the tongue and moves it anteriorly; the styloglossus lifts the tongue and retracts it; the palatoglossus elevates the back of the tongue; and the hyoglossus depresses and flattens it. The muscles of the anterior neck facilitate swallowing and speech, stabilize the hyoid bone and position the larynx. The muscles of the neck stabilize and move the head. The sternocleidomastoid divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles. The muscles of the back and neck that move the vertebral column are complex, overlapping, and can be divided into five groups. The splenius group includes the splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis. The erector spinae has three subgroups. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis, the iliocostalis thoracis, and the iliocostalis lumborum. Removing question excerpt is a premium feature. What muscle Originates: What muscle Originates on the Zygomatic Arch Inserts on the lateral surface of the mandible? What muscle Originates on the Sphenoid Bone and Inserts on the anterior surface of the mandible condyle? What muscle Originates on the Fascia in the Upper Chest and Inserts on the Lower border of the mandible and the skin around the mouth? What muscle Originates on the Temporal Bone and Inserts on the Coronoid process and anterior ramus of mandible? What muscle Originates on the Outer surfaces of the mandible and maxilla and Inserts on the Orbicularis Oris? What muscle Originates on the Spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae and Inserts on the Mastoid process of the temporal bone and occipital bone?.

The splenius muscles originate at the midline and run laterally and superiorly to their insertions. From the sides and the back of the neck, the splenius capitis inserts onto the head region, and the splenius cervicis extends onto the cervical region.

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These muscles can extend the head, laterally flex it, and rotate it Figure 9. The erector spinae group forms the majority of the muscle mass of the back and it is the primary extensor of the vertebral column. It controls flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation of the vertebral column, and maintains the lumbar curve.

The erector spinae comprises the iliocostalis laterally placed group, the longissimus intermediately placed group, and the spinalis medially placed group. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis Origin and insertion of facial musclesassociated with the cervical region; the iliocostalis thoracisassociated with the thoracic region; and the iliocostalis lumborumassociated with the lumbar region. The three muscles of the longissimus group are the longissimus capitisassociated with Origin and insertion of facial muscles head region; the longissimus cervicisassociated with the cervical region; and the longissimus thoracisassociated with the thoracic region.

The third group, the spinalis group Origin and insertion of facial muscles, comprises the spinalis capitis head regionthe spinalis cervicis cervical regionand the spinalis thoracis thoracic region.

The transversospinales muscles run from the transverse processes to the spinous processes of the vertebrae. Similar to the erector spinae muscles, the semispinalis muscles in this group are named for the areas of the body with which they are Midget adult xxx.

Paty porn Watch SEX Videos Ruah nude. Under anesthesia, the tongue can relax and partially or fully block the airway, and the muscles of respiration may not move the diaphragm or chest wall. To avoid possible complications, the safest procedure to use on a patient is called endotracheal intubation. Post-surgery, the anesthesiologist gradually changes the mixture of the gases that keep the patient unconscious, and when the muscles of respiration begin to function, the tube is removed. It still takes about 30 minutes for a patient to wake up, and for breathing muscles to regain control of respiration. After surgery, most people have a sore or scratchy throat for a few days. The muscles of the anterior neck assist in deglutition swallowing and speech by controlling the positions of the larynx voice box , and the hyoid bone, a horseshoe-shaped bone that functions as a solid foundation on which the tongue can move. The muscles of the neck are categorized according to their position relative to the hyoid bone Figure 7. Suprahyoid muscles are superior to it, and the infrahyoid muscles are located inferiorly. The suprahyoid muscles raise the hyoid bone, the floor of the mouth, and the larynx during deglutition. These include the digastric muscle, which has anterior and posterior bellies that work to elevate the hyoid bone and larynx when one swallows; it also depresses the mandible. The stylohyoid muscle moves the hyoid bone posteriorly, elevating the larynx, and the mylohyoid muscle lifts it and helps press the tongue to the top of the mouth. The geniohyoid depresses the mandible in addition to raising and pulling the hyoid bone anteriorly. The strap-like infrahyoid muscles generally depress the hyoid bone and control the position of the larynx. The omohyoid muscle, which has superior and inferior bellies, depresses the hyoid bone in conjunction with the sternohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. The head, attached to the top of the vertebral column, is balanced, moved, and rotated by the neck muscles Table 5. When these muscles act unilaterally, the head rotates. When they contract bilaterally, the head flexes or extends. The major muscle that laterally flexes and rotates the head is the sternocleidomastoid. In addition, both muscles working together are the flexors of the head. Place your fingers on both sides of the neck and turn your head to the left and to the right. You will feel the movement originate there. This muscle divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles when viewed from the side Figure 8. The posterior muscles of the neck are primarily concerned with head movements, like extension. The back muscles stabilize and move the vertebral column, and are grouped according to the lengths and direction of the fascicles. The splenius muscles originate at the midline and run laterally and superiorly to their insertions. From the sides and the back of the neck, the splenius capitis inserts onto the head region, and the splenius cervicis extends onto the cervical region. These muscles can extend the head, laterally flex it, and rotate it Figure 9. The erector spinae group forms the majority of the muscle mass of the back and it is the primary extensor of the vertebral column. It controls flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation of the vertebral column, and maintains the lumbar curve. Levator anguli oris Levator labii superioris Zygomaticus major minor. Orbicularis oris Risorius Buccinator. Depressor anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Mentalis Transversus menti. Veli palatini tensor levator Musculus uvulae Palatopharyngeus Palatoglossus. Genioglossus Hyoglossus chondroglossus Styloglossus Palatoglossus. Superior longitudinal Inferior longitudinal Transverse Vertical. Authority control TA Retrieved from " https: Muscles of the head and neck Face. Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles with TA98 identifiers. What muscle Originates on the Outer surfaces of the mandible and maxilla and Inserts on the Orbicularis Oris? What muscle Originates on the Spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae and Inserts on the Mastoid process of the temporal bone and occipital bone? What muscle Originates on the processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae and Inserts on the occipital bone? What muscle Originates on the anterior surface of the sternum and upper clavicle and Inserts on the mastoid process of the temporal bone? Back to top. Remove Ad. Removing ad is a premium feature. Sign In with your ProProfs account. The rest of the shoulder muscles originate on the scapula and help to move the arm. Although the shoulder joint allows a great deal of freedom of movement due to the shallow glenoid cavity it is extremely vulnerable to downward dislocation. When baseball pitchers undergo shoulder surgery it is usually on the rotator cuff, which becomes pinched and inflamed, and may tear away from the bone due to the repetitive motion of bringing the arm overhead to throw a fast pitch. The forearm, made of the radius and ulna bones, has four main types of action at the hinge of the elbow joint: When the forearm faces anteriorly, it is supinated. When the forearm faces posteriorly, it is pronated. The forearm flexors include the biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis. The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis flex the forearm. Muscles That Move the Forearm. The muscles originating in the upper arm flex, extend, pronate, and supinate the forearm. The muscles originating in the forearm move the wrists, hands, and fingers. Wrist, hand, and finger movements are facilitated by two groups of muscles. The palm is the origin of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. These make up the bulk of the forearm. However, repetitive movement with poor ergonomics can irritate the tendons of these muscles as they slide back and forth with the carpal tunnel of the anterior wrist and pinch the median nerve, which also travels through the tunnel, causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the wrist and extend into the hand. These muscles allow your fingers to make precise movements for actions, such as typing or writing. These muscles are divided into three groups. The movements of the thumb play an integral role in most precise movements of the hand. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand. The intrinsic muscles of the hand both originate and insert within the hand. These muscles provide the fine motor control of the fingers by flexing, extending, abducting, and adducting the more distal finger and thumb segments. The clavicle and scapula make up the pectoral girdle, which provides a stable origin for the muscles that move the humerus. The muscles that position and stabilize the pectoral girdle are located on the thorax. The anterior thoracic muscles are the subclavius, pectoralis minor, and the serratus anterior. The posterior thoracic muscles are the trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, and rhomboid minor. Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint to move the humerus. The ones that originate on the axial skeleton are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. The deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, and coracobrachialis originate on the scapula. The extensors are the triceps brachii and anconeus. The pronators are the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus. The supinator is the only one that turns the forearm anteriorly. The extrinsic muscles of the hands originate along the forearm and insert into the hand in order to facilitate crude movements of the wrists, hands, and fingers. The superficial anterior compartment of the forearm produces flexion. These muscles are the flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and the flexor digitorum superficialis. The deep anterior compartment produces flexion as well. These are the flexor pollicis longus and the flexor digitorum profundus. The rest of the compartments produce extension. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris are the muscles found in the superficial posterior compartment. The deep posterior compartment includes the abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and the extensor indicis. Finally, the intrinsic muscles of the hands allow our fingers to make precise movements, such as typing and writing. They both originate and insert within the hand. The thenar muscles, which are located on the lateral part of the palm, are the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, and adductor pollicis. The hypothenar muscles, which are located on the medial part of the palm, are the abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi. The intermediate muscles, located in the middle of the palm, are the lumbricals, palmar interossei, and dorsal interossei. Comparatively, there is much more movement at the pectoral girdle than at the pelvic girdle. There is very little movement of the pelvic girdle because of its connection with the sacrum at the base of the axial skeleton and because the deep acetabulum provides a stable point of articulation with the head of the femur. If the center of gravity were not to remain fixed, standing up would be difficult. Most muscles that insert on the femur the thigh bone and move it, originate on the pelvic girdle. Hip and Thigh Muscles. The large and powerful muscles of the hip that move the femur generally originate on the pelvic girdle and insert into the femur. The muscles that move the lower leg typically originate on the femur and insert into the bones of the knee joint. The anterior muscles of the femur extend the lower leg but also aid in flexing the thigh. The posterior muscles of the femur flex the lower leg but also aid in extending the thigh. A combination of gluteal and thigh muscles also adduct, abduct, and rotate the thigh and lower leg. It acts as a synergist of the gluteus medius and iliopsoas in flexing and abducting the thigh. The adductor longus also flexes the thigh, whereas the adductor magnus extends it. The patellar ligament attaches to the tibial tuberosity. This versatile muscle flexes the leg at the knee and flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates the thigh at the hip. This muscle allows us to sit cross-legged. Similar to the thigh muscles, the muscles of the leg are divided by deep fascia into compartments, although the leg has three: Muscles of the Lower Leg. The muscles of the anterior compartment of the lower leg are generally responsible for dorsiflexion, and the muscles of the posterior compartment of the lower leg are generally responsible for plantar flexion. The lateral and medial muscles in both compartments invert, evert, and rotate the foot. The muscles in this compartment are large and strong and keep humans upright. The plantaris tendon is a desirable substitute for the fascia lata in hernia repair, tendon transplants, and repair of ligaments. There are four deep muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg as well: The foot also has intrinsic muscles, which originate and insert within it similar to the intrinsic muscles of the hand. Figure 8. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot. The muscles along the dorsal side of the foot a generally extend the toes while the muscles of the plantar side of the foot b, c, d generally flex the toes. The plantar muscles exist in three layers, providing the foot the strength to counterbalance the weight of the body. In this diagram, these three layers are shown from a plantar view beginning with the bottom-most layer just under the plantar skin of the foot b and ending with the top-most layer d located just inferior to the foot and toe bones. The pelvic girdle attaches the legs to the axial skeleton. The hip joint is where the pelvic girdle and the leg come together. The hip is joined to the pelvic girdle by many muscles. In the gluteal region, the psoas major and iliacus form the iliopsoas. The large and strong gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus extend and abduct the femur. Along with the gluteus maximus, the tensor fascia lata muscle forms the iliotibial tract. The lateral rotators of the femur at the hip are the piriformis, obturator internus, obturator externus, superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, and quadratus femoris. On the medial part of the thigh, the adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus adduct the thigh and medially rotate it. The pectineus muscle adducts and flexes the femur at the hip. The thigh muscles that move the femur, tibia, and fibula are divided into medial, anterior, and posterior compartments. The medial compartment includes the adductors, pectineus, and the gracilis. The anterior compartment comprises the quadriceps femoris, quadriceps tendon, patellar ligament, and the sartorius. The quadriceps femoris is made of four muscles: The posterior compartment of the thigh includes the hamstrings: The muscles of the leg that move the foot and toes are divided into anterior, lateral, superficial- and deep-posterior compartments..

The semispinalis muscles include the semispinalis capitisthe semispinalis cervicisand the semispinalis thoracis. The multifidus muscle of the lumbar region helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

edecanes xxx Watch Porn Movies Sexting emoji. You will feel the movement originate there. This muscle divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles when viewed from the side Figure 8. The posterior muscles of the neck are primarily concerned with head movements, like extension. The back muscles stabilize and move the vertebral column, and are grouped according to the lengths and direction of the fascicles. The splenius muscles originate at the midline and run laterally and superiorly to their insertions. From the sides and the back of the neck, the splenius capitis inserts onto the head region, and the splenius cervicis extends onto the cervical region. These muscles can extend the head, laterally flex it, and rotate it Figure 9. The erector spinae group forms the majority of the muscle mass of the back and it is the primary extensor of the vertebral column. It controls flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation of the vertebral column, and maintains the lumbar curve. The erector spinae comprises the iliocostalis laterally placed group, the longissimus intermediately placed group, and the spinalis medially placed group. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis , associated with the cervical region; the iliocostalis thoracis , associated with the thoracic region; and the iliocostalis lumborum , associated with the lumbar region. The three muscles of the longissimus group are the longissimus capitis , associated with the head region; the longissimus cervicis , associated with the cervical region; and the longissimus thoracis , associated with the thoracic region. The third group, the spinalis group , comprises the spinalis capitis head region , the spinalis cervicis cervical region , and the spinalis thoracis thoracic region. The transversospinales muscles run from the transverse processes to the spinous processes of the vertebrae. Similar to the erector spinae muscles, the semispinalis muscles in this group are named for the areas of the body with which they are associated. The semispinalis muscles include the semispinalis capitis , the semispinalis cervicis , and the semispinalis thoracis. The multifidus muscle of the lumbar region helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column. Important in the stabilization of the vertebral column is the segmental muscle group , which includes the interspinales and intertransversarii muscles. These muscles bring together the spinous and transverse processes of each consecutive vertebra. Finally, the scalene muscles work together to flex, laterally flex, and rotate the head. They also contribute to deep inhalation. The scalene muscles include the anterior scalene muscle anterior to the middle scalene , the middle scalene muscle the longest, intermediate between the anterior and posterior scalenes , and the posterior scalene muscle the smallest, posterior to the middle scalene. Muscles are either axial muscles or appendicular. Some axial muscles cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The muscles of the head and neck are all axial. The muscles in the face create facial expression by inserting into the skin rather than onto bone. Muscles that move the eyeballs are extrinsic, meaning they originate outside of the eye and insert onto it. Tongue muscles are both extrinsic and intrinsic. The genioglossus depresses the tongue and moves it anteriorly; the styloglossus lifts the tongue and retracts it; the palatoglossus elevates the back of the tongue; and the hyoglossus depresses and flattens it. There are four deep muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg as well: The foot also has intrinsic muscles, which originate and insert within it similar to the intrinsic muscles of the hand. Figure 8. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot. The muscles along the dorsal side of the foot a generally extend the toes while the muscles of the plantar side of the foot b, c, d generally flex the toes. The plantar muscles exist in three layers, providing the foot the strength to counterbalance the weight of the body. In this diagram, these three layers are shown from a plantar view beginning with the bottom-most layer just under the plantar skin of the foot b and ending with the top-most layer d located just inferior to the foot and toe bones. The pelvic girdle attaches the legs to the axial skeleton. The hip joint is where the pelvic girdle and the leg come together. The hip is joined to the pelvic girdle by many muscles. In the gluteal region, the psoas major and iliacus form the iliopsoas. The large and strong gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus extend and abduct the femur. Along with the gluteus maximus, the tensor fascia lata muscle forms the iliotibial tract. The lateral rotators of the femur at the hip are the piriformis, obturator internus, obturator externus, superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, and quadratus femoris. On the medial part of the thigh, the adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus adduct the thigh and medially rotate it. The pectineus muscle adducts and flexes the femur at the hip. The thigh muscles that move the femur, tibia, and fibula are divided into medial, anterior, and posterior compartments. The medial compartment includes the adductors, pectineus, and the gracilis. The anterior compartment comprises the quadriceps femoris, quadriceps tendon, patellar ligament, and the sartorius. The quadriceps femoris is made of four muscles: The posterior compartment of the thigh includes the hamstrings: The muscles of the leg that move the foot and toes are divided into anterior, lateral, superficial- and deep-posterior compartments. The anterior compartment includes the tibialis anterior, the extensor hallucis longus, the extensor digitorum longus, and the fibularis peroneus tertius. The lateral compartment houses the fibularis peroneus longus and the fibularis peroneus brevis. The superficial posterior compartment has the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris; and the deep posterior compartment has the popliteus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus. Search for: Edited and Revised by Lindsay M. Chapter The Muscular System. Previous Next. Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to identify the following muscles and give their origins, insertions, actions and innervations: Axial muscles of the head neck and back Axial muscles of the abdominal wall and thorax Muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper limb Appendicular muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limbs. Muscles in Facial Expression. Muscles that Move the Tongue. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Explain the difference between axial and appendicular muscles. Describe the muscles of the anterior neck. Why are the muscles of the face different from typical skeletal muscle? The muscles of the anterior neck are arranged to facilitate swallowing and speech. They work on the hyoid bone, with the suprahyoid muscles pulling up and the infrahyoid muscles pulling down. Most skeletal muscles create movement by actions on the skeleton. Facial muscles are different in that they create facial movements and expressions by pulling on the skin—no bone movements are involved. Review Questions 1. Which of the following abdominal muscles is not a part of the anterior abdominal wall? Which muscle pair plays a role in respiration? What is the linea alba? What are some similarities and differences between the diaphragm and the pelvic diaphragm? Solutions Answers for Review Questions A D B Answers for Critical Thinking Questions Arranged into layers, the muscles of the abdominal wall are the internal and external obliques, which run on diagonals, the rectus abdominis, which runs straight down the midline of the body, and the transversus abdominis, which wraps across the trunk of the body. Both diaphragms are thin sheets of skeletal muscle that horizontally span areas of the trunk. The diaphragm separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities is the primary muscle of breathing. The pelvic diaphragm, consisting of two paired muscles, the coccygeus and the levator ani, forms the pelvic floor at the inferior end of the trunk. Which muscle extends the forearm? What is the origin of the wrist flexors? Which muscles stabilize the pectoral girdle? The tendons of which muscles form the rotator cuff? Why is the rotator cuff important? List the general muscle groups of the shoulders and upper limbs as well as their subgroups. Glossary abductor digiti minimi muscle that abducts the little finger adductor pollicis muscle that adducts the thumb abductor pollicis brevis muscle that abducts the thumb abductor pollicis longus muscle that inserts into the first metacarpal anconeus small muscle on the lateral posterior elbow that extends the forearm anterior compartment of the arm anterior flexor compartment of the arm the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves anterior compartment of the forearm anterior flexor compartment of the forearm deep and superficial muscles that originate on the humerus and insert into the hand biceps brachii two-headed muscle that crosses the shoulder and elbow joints to flex the forearm while assisting in supinating it and flexing the arm at the shoulder brachialis muscle deep to the biceps brachii that provides power in flexing the forearm. Solutions Answers for Review Questions C B B A Answers for Critical Thinking Questions Tendons of the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor, and the subscapularis form the rotator cuff, which forms a foundation on which the arms and shoulders can be stabilized and move. The muscles that make up the shoulders and upper limbs include the muscles that position the pelvic girdle, the muscles that move the humerus, the muscles that move the forearm, and the muscles that move the wrists, hands, and fingers. Gluteal Region Muscles That Move the Thigh Most muscles that insert on the femur the thigh bone and move it, originate on the pelvic girdle. Muscles That Move the Feet and Toes. Compartments of the leg. Intrinsic Muscles in the Foot. Which muscle produces movement that allows you to cross your legs? What is the largest muscle in the lower leg? The vastus intermedius muscle is deep to which of the following muscles? Which muscles form the hamstrings? How do they function together? Which muscles form the quadriceps? The hamstrings flex the leg at the knee joint. The rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius form the quadriceps. The quadriceps muscles extend the leg at the knee joint. Home Table of Contents Close Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Human Body 1. The Chemical Level of Organization 2. The Building Blocks of Matter 2. The Cellular Level of Organization 3. The Tissue Level of Organization 4. The Integumentary System 5. Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System 6. Bone Repair 6. Axial Skeleton 7. The Appendicular Skeleton 8. Joints 9. Muscle Tissue The Muscular System The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue They generally originate from the surface of the skull bone rarely the fascia , and insert on the skin of the face. When they contract, the skin moves. The facial muscles are supplied by the facial nerve cranial nerve VII , with each nerve serving one side of the face. The facial muscles include: The platysma is supplied by the facial nerve. Although it is mostly in the neck and can be grouped with the neck muscles by location, it can be considered a muscle of facial expression due to its common nerve supply. The stylohyoid muscle , stapedius and posterior belly of the digastric muscle are also supplied by the facial nerve, but are not considered muscles of facial expression. An inability to form facial expressions on one side of the face may be the first sign of damage to the nerve of these muscles. Damage to the facial nerve results in facial paralysis of the muscles of facial expression on the involved side. Paralysis is the loss of voluntary muscle action; the facial nerve has become damaged permanently or temporarily. This damage can occur with a stroke , Bell palsy , or parotid salivary gland cancer malignant neoplasm because the facial nerve travels through the gland. Duplicate Quiz Cancel. A copy of this quiz is in your dashboard. Go to My Dashboard. Questions and Answers. Remove Excerpt. Removing question excerpt is a premium feature. What muscle Originates: What muscle Originates on the Zygomatic Arch Inserts on the lateral surface of the mandible?.

Facial muscles Head. This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology. Chung Gross Anatomy Board Review. Hagerstown, MD: Muscles of the head. Oblique inferior superior Rectus superior inferior medial lateral Levator palpebrae superioris superior tarsal.

Origin and insertion of facial muscles

Masseter Temporalis sphenomandibularis Pterygoid lateral medial Fascia masseteric temporal. Auricular anterior superior posterior Temporoparietalis. Occipitofrontalis occipitalis frontalis Orbicularis oculi depressor supercilii Corrugator supercilii. Muscles of the Eyes. In anatomical terminology, chewing is called mastication. Muscles involved in chewing must be able to exert enough pressure to bite through and then chew food Origin and insertion of facial muscles it is swallowed Figure 4 and Table 4.

You can feel the temporalis move by putting your fingers to your temple as you chew. Figure 4. Muscles That Move the Lower Jaw. The muscles that move the lower jaw are typically located within the cheek and originate from processes in the skull.

This provides the jaw muscles with the large amount of leverage needed for chewing. Muscles of the Lower Jaw Table 4 Movement Target Target motion direction Prime mover Origin Insertion Closes mouth; aids chewing Mandible Superior elevates Masseter Maxilla arch; zygomatic arch for masseter Mandible Closes mouth; pulls lower jaw in under upper jaw Mandible Origin and insertion of facial muscles elevates ; posterior retracts Temporalis Temporal bone Mandible Opens mouth; pushes lower jaw out under upper jaw; moves lower jaw side-to-side Mandible Inferior depresses ; posterior protracts ; lateral abducts ; medial adducts Lateral pterygoid Pterygoid process of sphenoid bone Mandible Closes mouth; pushes lower jaw out under upper jaw; moves lower jaw side-to-side Mandible Superior elevates ; posterior Origin and insertion of facial muscles ; lateral abducts ; Origin and insertion of facial muscles adducts Medial pterygoid Sphenoid bone; maxilla Mandible; temporo-mandibular joint Muscles That Move the Tongue Although the tongue is obviously important for tasting food, it is also necessary for mastication, deglutition swallowingand speech Figure 5 and Figure 6.

Because of its mobility, the tongue facilitates complex speech patterns and sounds. Figure 6. Origin and insertion of facial muscles for Tongue Movement, Swallowing, and Speech. Tongue muscles can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from outside origins, and the intrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from origins within it.

The extrinsic muscles move the whole tongue in different directions, whereas the intrinsic muscles allow the tongue to change its shape such as, curling the tongue in a loop or flattening it. The styloglossus originates on the styloid process of the temporal bone, and allows upward and backward motion. The palatoglossus originates on the soft palate to elevate the back of the tongue, and the hyoglossus originates on the hyoid bone to move the tongue downward and flatten it.

The muscles of the anterior neck assist in deglutition swallowing and speech by controlling the positions of the larynx voice boxand the hyoid bone, a horseshoe-shaped bone that functions as a foundation here which the tongue can move.

The muscles of the neck are categorized here to their position relative to the hyoid bone Figure 7. Suprahyoid muscles are superior to it, and the infrahyoid muscles are located inferiorly.

Best sex position for smaller penis 7. Muscles of the Anterior Neck. The anterior muscles of the neck facilitate swallowing and speech.

The suprahyoid muscles originate from above the hyoid bone in the chin region. The infrahyoid muscles originate below the hyoid https://lesbian.caca.press/video11453-mule.php in the lower neck.

The suprahyoid muscles raise the hyoid bone, the floor of the mouth, and the larynx during deglutition. These include the digastric muscle, which has anterior and posterior bellies Origin and insertion of facial muscles work to elevate the hyoid bone and larynx when one swallows; it also depresses the mandible. The stylohyoid muscle moves the hyoid bone posteriorly, elevating the larynx, and the mylohyoid muscle lifts it and helps press the tongue to the top of learn more here mouth.

The geniohyoid depresses the mandible in addition to raising and pulling the hyoid bone anteriorly. The strap-like infrahyoid muscles generally Origin and insertion of facial muscles the hyoid bone and control the position of the larynx. The omohyoid muscle, which has superior and inferior bellies, depresses the hyoid bone in conjunction with the sternohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles.

The head is balanced, moved and rotated by the neck muscles Table 5. When these muscles act unilaterally, the head rotates.

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When they contract bilaterally, the head flexes or extends. The major muscle that laterally flexes and rotates the head is the sternocleidomastoid. Origin and insertion of facial muscles addition, both muscles working together are the flexors of the head. Place your fingers on both sides of the neck and read more your head to the left and to the right. You will feel the movement originate there. The posterior muscles of the neck are primarily concerned with head movements, like extension.

The back muscles stabilize and move the vertebral column, and are grouped according to the lengths and direction Origin and insertion of facial muscles the fascicles. The splenius muscles originate at the midline and run laterally and superiorly to their insertions. From the sides and the back of the neck, the splenius capitis inserts onto the head region, and the splenius cervicis extends onto the cervical region.

Desi Mirchitube Watch PORN Videos Missexy women. Similar to the erector spinae muscles, the semispinalis muscles in this group are named for the areas of the body with which they are associated. The semispinalis muscles include the semispinalis capitis , the semispinalis cervicis , and the semispinalis thoracis. The multifidus muscle of the lumbar region helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column. Important in the stabilization of the vertebral column is the segmental muscle group , which includes the interspinales and intertransversarii muscles. These muscles bring together the spinous and transverse processes of each consecutive vertebra. Finally, the scalene muscles work together to flex, laterally flex, and rotate the head. They also contribute to deep inhalation. The scalene muscles include the anterior scalene muscle anterior to the middle scalene , the middle scalene muscle the longest, intermediate between the anterior and posterior scalenes , and the posterior scalene muscle the smallest, posterior to the middle scalene. Muscles are either axial muscles or appendicular. Some axial muscles cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The muscles of the head and neck are all axial. The muscles in the face create facial expression by inserting into the skin rather than onto bone. Muscles that move the eyeballs are extrinsic, meaning they originate outside of the eye and insert onto it. Tongue muscles are both extrinsic and intrinsic. The genioglossus depresses the tongue and moves it anteriorly; the styloglossus lifts the tongue and retracts it; the palatoglossus elevates the back of the tongue; and the hyoglossus depresses and flattens it. The muscles of the anterior neck facilitate swallowing and speech, stabilize the hyoid bone and position the larynx. The muscles of the neck stabilize and move the head. The sternocleidomastoid divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles. The muscles of the back and neck that move the vertebral column are complex, overlapping, and can be divided into five groups. The splenius group includes the splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis. The erector spinae has three subgroups. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis, the iliocostalis thoracis, and the iliocostalis lumborum. The longissimus group includes the longissimus capitis, the longissimus cervicis, and the longissimus thoracis. The spinalis group includes the spinalis capitis, the spinalis cervicis, and the spinalis thoracis. The transversospinales include the semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, and rotatores. The segmental muscles include the interspinales and intertransversarii. Finally, the scalenes include the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Chapter The parotid gland can also be damaged permanently by surgery or temporarily by trauma. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Facial muscles Head. This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology. Chung Gross Anatomy Board Review. Hagerstown, MD: Muscles of the head. Oblique inferior superior Rectus superior inferior medial lateral Levator palpebrae superioris superior tarsal. Masseter Temporalis sphenomandibularis Pterygoid lateral medial Fascia masseteric temporal. Auricular anterior superior posterior Temporoparietalis. Duplicate Quiz Cancel. A copy of this quiz is in your dashboard. Go to My Dashboard. Questions and Answers. Remove Excerpt. Removing question excerpt is a premium feature. What muscle Originates: What muscle Originates on the Zygomatic Arch Inserts on the lateral surface of the mandible? When the abdominal muscles contract, the pressure cannot push the diaphragm up, so it increases pressure on the intestinal tract defecation , urinary tract urination , or reproductive tract childbirth. The inferior surface of the pericardial sac and the inferior surfaces of the pleural membranes parietal pleura fuse onto the central tendon of the diaphragm. To the sides of the tendon are the skeletal muscle portions of the diaphragm, which insert into the tendon while having a number of origins including the xiphoid process of the sternum anteriorly, the inferior six ribs and their cartilages laterally, and the lumbar vertebrae and 12th ribs posteriorly. The diaphragm also includes three openings for the passage of structures between the thorax and the abdomen. The aorta, thoracic duct, and azygous vein pass through the aortic hiatus of the posterior diaphragm. The principal role of the intercostal muscles is to assist in breathing by changing the dimensions of the rib cage Figure 3. Intercostal Muscles. The external intercostals are located laterally on the sides of the body. The internal intercostals are located medially near the sternum. The innermost intercostals are located deep to both the internal and external intercostals. Its openings include the anal canal and urethra, and the vagina in women. The levator ani is considered the most important muscle of the pelvic floor because it supports the pelvic viscera. This muscle also creates skeletal muscle sphincters at the urethra and anus. Muscles of the Pelvic Floor. The pelvic floor muscles support the pelvic organs, resist intra-abdominal pressure, and work as sphincters for the urethra, rectum, and vagina. The perineum is also divided into superficial and deep layers with some of the muscles common to men and women Figure 6. Figure 5. Muscles of the Perineum. The perineum muscles play roles in urination in both sexes, ejaculation in men, and vaginal contraction in women. Muscles of the Perineum Common to Men and Women. Made of skin, fascia, and four pairs of muscle, the anterior abdominal wall protects the organs located in the abdomen and moves the vertebral column. These muscles include the rectus abdominis, which extends through the entire length of the trunk, the external oblique, the internal oblique, and the transversus abdominus. The quadratus lumborum forms the posterior abdominal wall. The muscles of the thorax play a large role in breathing, especially the dome-shaped diaphragm. When it contracts and flattens, the volume inside the pleural cavities increases, which decreases the pressure within them. As a result, air will flow into the lungs. The external and internal intercostal muscles span the space between the ribs and help change the shape of the rib cage and the volume-pressure ratio inside the pleural cavities during inspiration and expiration. Describe the fascicle arrangement in the muscles of the abdominal wall. How do they relate to each other? Muscles of the shoulder and upper limb can be divided into four groups: The girdle creates a base from which the head of the humerus, in its ball-and-socket joint with the glenoid fossa of the scapula, can move the arm in multiple directions. When the rhomboids are contracted, your scapula moves medially, which can pull the shoulder and upper limb posteriorly. Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle. The muscles that stabilize the pectoral girdle make it a steady base on which other muscles can move the arm. Note that the pectoralis major and deltoid, which move the humerus, are cut here to show the deeper positioning muscles. The two axial muscles are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. Muscles That Move the Humerus. The muscles that move the humerus inferiorly generally originate from middle or lower back e. The rest of the shoulder muscles originate on the scapula and help to move the arm. Although the shoulder joint allows a great deal of freedom of movement due to the shallow glenoid cavity it is extremely vulnerable to downward dislocation. When baseball pitchers undergo shoulder surgery it is usually on the rotator cuff, which becomes pinched and inflamed, and may tear away from the bone due to the repetitive motion of bringing the arm overhead to throw a fast pitch. The forearm, made of the radius and ulna bones, has four main types of action at the hinge of the elbow joint: When the forearm faces anteriorly, it is supinated. When the forearm faces posteriorly, it is pronated. The forearm flexors include the biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis. The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis flex the forearm. Muscles That Move the Forearm. The muscles originating in the upper arm flex, extend, pronate, and supinate the forearm. The muscles originating in the forearm move the wrists, hands, and fingers. Wrist, hand, and finger movements are facilitated by two groups of muscles. The palm is the origin of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. These make up the bulk of the forearm. However, repetitive movement with poor ergonomics can irritate the tendons of these muscles as they slide back and forth with the carpal tunnel of the anterior wrist and pinch the median nerve, which also travels through the tunnel, causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the wrist and extend into the hand. These muscles allow your fingers to make precise movements for actions, such as typing or writing. These muscles are divided into three groups. The movements of the thumb play an integral role in most precise movements of the hand. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand. The intrinsic muscles of the hand both originate and insert within the hand. These muscles provide the fine motor control of the fingers by flexing, extending, abducting, and adducting the more distal finger and thumb segments. The clavicle and scapula make up the pectoral girdle, which provides a stable origin for the muscles that move the humerus. The muscles that position and stabilize the pectoral girdle are located on the thorax. The anterior thoracic muscles are the subclavius, pectoralis minor, and the serratus anterior. The posterior thoracic muscles are the trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, and rhomboid minor. Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint to move the humerus. The ones that originate on the axial skeleton are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. The deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, and coracobrachialis originate on the scapula. The extensors are the triceps brachii and anconeus. The pronators are the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus. The supinator is the only one that turns the forearm anteriorly. The extrinsic muscles of the hands originate along the forearm and insert into the hand in order to facilitate crude movements of the wrists, hands, and fingers. The superficial anterior compartment of the forearm produces flexion. These muscles are the flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and the flexor digitorum superficialis. The deep anterior compartment produces flexion as well. These are the flexor pollicis longus and the flexor digitorum profundus. The rest of the compartments produce extension. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris are the muscles found in the superficial posterior compartment. The deep posterior compartment includes the abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and the extensor indicis. Finally, the intrinsic muscles of the hands allow our fingers to make precise movements, such as typing and writing. They both originate and insert within the hand. The thenar muscles, which are located on the lateral part of the palm, are the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, and adductor pollicis. The hypothenar muscles, which are located on the medial part of the palm, are the abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi. The intermediate muscles, located in the middle of the palm, are the lumbricals, palmar interossei, and dorsal interossei. Comparatively, there is much more movement at the pectoral girdle than at the pelvic girdle. There is very little movement of the pelvic girdle because of its connection with the sacrum at the base of the axial skeleton and because the deep acetabulum provides a stable point of articulation with the head of the femur. If the center of gravity were not to remain fixed, standing up would be difficult. Most muscles that insert on the femur the thigh bone and move it, originate on the pelvic girdle. Hip and Thigh Muscles..

These muscles can extend the head, laterally flex it, and rotate it Figure 9. Figure 9. Muscles of the Origin and insertion of facial muscles and Back. The large, complex muscles of the neck and back move the head, shoulders, and vertebral column.

The erector spinae group forms the majority of the muscle mass of the back and it is the primary extensor of the vertebral column.

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It controls extension, lateral flexion, and rotation of the vertebral column, and maintains the lumbar curve. The erector spinae comprises the iliocostalis laterally placed group, the longissimus intermediately placed group, and the Origin and insertion of facial muscles medially placed group.

The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicisassociated with the cervical region; the iliocostalis thoracisassociated with the thoracic region; and the iliocostalis lumborumassociated with the lumbar region. The three muscles of the longissimus group are the longissimus capitisassociated with the head region; the longissimus cervicisassociated with the cervical region; and the longissimus thoracisassociated with the thoracic region.

The third group, the spinalis groupcomprises the spinalis capitis head regionthe spinalis cervicis cervical regionand the spinalis thoracis thoracic region. The transversospinales muscles run from the transverse processes to the spinous processes of the vertebrae.

Similar to the erector spinae muscles, the semispinalis muscles in this group are named for the areas of the body with which they are associated. The semispinalis muscles include the Origin and insertion of facial muscles capitisthe semispinalis cervicisand the semispinalis thoracis. The multifidus muscle of the lumbar region helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column. Important in the stabilization of the vertebral column is the segmental muscle groupwhich includes the interspinales and intertransversarii muscles.

These muscles bring together the spinous and transverse processes of each consecutive vertebra. Finally, the Origin and insertion of facial muscles muscles work together to flex, laterally flex, and rotate the head. They also contribute to deep inhalation. The scalene muscles include the anterior scalene muscle anterior to the middle scalenethe middle scalene muscle the longest, intermediate between the anterior and posterior scalenesOrigin and insertion of facial muscles the posterior scalene muscle the smallest, posterior to the middle scalene.

Muscles are either axial muscles or appendicular. The axial muscles are grouped based on location, https://perverted.caca.press/page10264-higonikom.php, or both. Some axial muscles cross over to the appendicular skeleton.

The muscles of the head and neck are all axial. The muscles in the face create facial expression by inserting into the skin rather than onto bone. Muscles that move the eyeballs are extrinsic, meaning article source originate outside of the eye and insert onto it.

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Tongue muscles are both extrinsic and intrinsic. The genioglossus depresses the tongue Origin and insertion of facial muscles moves it anteriorly; the styloglossus lifts the tongue and retracts it; the palatoglossus elevates the back of the tongue; and the hyoglossus depresses and flattens it. The muscles of the anterior neck facilitate swallowing and speech, stabilize Origin and insertion of facial muscles hyoid bone and position the larynx.

The muscles of the neck stabilize and move the head. The sternocleidomastoid divides the neck into anterior more info posterior triangles. The muscles of the back and neck that move the vertebral column are complex, overlapping, and can be divided into five groups.

Origin and insertion of facial muscles

The splenius group includes the splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis. The erector spinae has three subgroups. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis, the iliocostalis thoracis, and the iliocostalis lumborum. The longissimus group includes the longissimus capitis, the longissimus cervicis, and the longissimus thoracis.

Video wifey Watch Porn Movies Sext exchange. Questions and Answers. Remove Excerpt. Removing question excerpt is a premium feature. What muscle Originates: What muscle Originates on the Zygomatic Arch Inserts on the lateral surface of the mandible? What muscle Originates on the Sphenoid Bone and Inserts on the anterior surface of the mandible condyle? What muscle Originates on the Fascia in the Upper Chest and Inserts on the Lower border of the mandible and the skin around the mouth? What muscle Originates on the Temporal Bone and Inserts on the Coronoid process and anterior ramus of mandible? Intercostal Muscles. The external intercostals are located laterally on the sides of the body. The internal intercostals are located medially near the sternum. The innermost intercostals are located deep to both the internal and external intercostals. Its openings include the anal canal and urethra, and the vagina in women. The levator ani is considered the most important muscle of the pelvic floor because it supports the pelvic viscera. This muscle also creates skeletal muscle sphincters at the urethra and anus. Muscles of the Pelvic Floor. The pelvic floor muscles support the pelvic organs, resist intra-abdominal pressure, and work as sphincters for the urethra, rectum, and vagina. The perineum is also divided into superficial and deep layers with some of the muscles common to men and women Figure 6. Figure 5. Muscles of the Perineum. The perineum muscles play roles in urination in both sexes, ejaculation in men, and vaginal contraction in women. Muscles of the Perineum Common to Men and Women. Made of skin, fascia, and four pairs of muscle, the anterior abdominal wall protects the organs located in the abdomen and moves the vertebral column. These muscles include the rectus abdominis, which extends through the entire length of the trunk, the external oblique, the internal oblique, and the transversus abdominus. The quadratus lumborum forms the posterior abdominal wall. The muscles of the thorax play a large role in breathing, especially the dome-shaped diaphragm. When it contracts and flattens, the volume inside the pleural cavities increases, which decreases the pressure within them. As a result, air will flow into the lungs. The external and internal intercostal muscles span the space between the ribs and help change the shape of the rib cage and the volume-pressure ratio inside the pleural cavities during inspiration and expiration. Describe the fascicle arrangement in the muscles of the abdominal wall. How do they relate to each other? Muscles of the shoulder and upper limb can be divided into four groups: The girdle creates a base from which the head of the humerus, in its ball-and-socket joint with the glenoid fossa of the scapula, can move the arm in multiple directions. When the rhomboids are contracted, your scapula moves medially, which can pull the shoulder and upper limb posteriorly. Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle. The muscles that stabilize the pectoral girdle make it a steady base on which other muscles can move the arm. Note that the pectoralis major and deltoid, which move the humerus, are cut here to show the deeper positioning muscles. The two axial muscles are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. Muscles That Move the Humerus. The muscles that move the humerus inferiorly generally originate from middle or lower back e. The rest of the shoulder muscles originate on the scapula and help to move the arm. Although the shoulder joint allows a great deal of freedom of movement due to the shallow glenoid cavity it is extremely vulnerable to downward dislocation. When baseball pitchers undergo shoulder surgery it is usually on the rotator cuff, which becomes pinched and inflamed, and may tear away from the bone due to the repetitive motion of bringing the arm overhead to throw a fast pitch. The forearm, made of the radius and ulna bones, has four main types of action at the hinge of the elbow joint: When the forearm faces anteriorly, it is supinated. When the forearm faces posteriorly, it is pronated. The forearm flexors include the biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis. The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis flex the forearm. Muscles That Move the Forearm. The muscles originating in the upper arm flex, extend, pronate, and supinate the forearm. The muscles originating in the forearm move the wrists, hands, and fingers. Wrist, hand, and finger movements are facilitated by two groups of muscles. The palm is the origin of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. These make up the bulk of the forearm. However, repetitive movement with poor ergonomics can irritate the tendons of these muscles as they slide back and forth with the carpal tunnel of the anterior wrist and pinch the median nerve, which also travels through the tunnel, causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the wrist and extend into the hand. These muscles allow your fingers to make precise movements for actions, such as typing or writing. These muscles are divided into three groups. The movements of the thumb play an integral role in most precise movements of the hand. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand. The intrinsic muscles of the hand both originate and insert within the hand. These muscles provide the fine motor control of the fingers by flexing, extending, abducting, and adducting the more distal finger and thumb segments. The clavicle and scapula make up the pectoral girdle, which provides a stable origin for the muscles that move the humerus. The muscles that position and stabilize the pectoral girdle are located on the thorax. The anterior thoracic muscles are the subclavius, pectoralis minor, and the serratus anterior. The posterior thoracic muscles are the trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, and rhomboid minor. Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint to move the humerus. The ones that originate on the axial skeleton are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. The deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, and coracobrachialis originate on the scapula. The extensors are the triceps brachii and anconeus. The pronators are the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus. The supinator is the only one that turns the forearm anteriorly. The extrinsic muscles of the hands originate along the forearm and insert into the hand in order to facilitate crude movements of the wrists, hands, and fingers. The superficial anterior compartment of the forearm produces flexion. These muscles are the flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and the flexor digitorum superficialis. The deep anterior compartment produces flexion as well. These are the flexor pollicis longus and the flexor digitorum profundus. The rest of the compartments produce extension. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris are the muscles found in the superficial posterior compartment. The deep posterior compartment includes the abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and the extensor indicis. Finally, the intrinsic muscles of the hands allow our fingers to make precise movements, such as typing and writing. They both originate and insert within the hand. The thenar muscles, which are located on the lateral part of the palm, are the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, and adductor pollicis. The hypothenar muscles, which are located on the medial part of the palm, are the abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi. The intermediate muscles, located in the middle of the palm, are the lumbricals, palmar interossei, and dorsal interossei. Comparatively, there is much more movement at the pectoral girdle than at the pelvic girdle. There is very little movement of the pelvic girdle because of its connection with the sacrum at the base of the axial skeleton and because the deep acetabulum provides a stable point of articulation with the head of the femur. If the center of gravity were not to remain fixed, standing up would be difficult. Most muscles that insert on the femur the thigh bone and move it, originate on the pelvic girdle. Hip and Thigh Muscles. The large and powerful muscles of the hip that move the femur generally originate on the pelvic girdle and insert into the femur. The muscles that move the lower leg typically originate on the femur and insert into the bones of the knee joint. The anterior muscles of the femur extend the lower leg but also aid in flexing the thigh. The posterior muscles of the femur flex the lower leg but also aid in extending the thigh. A combination of gluteal and thigh muscles also adduct, abduct, and rotate the thigh and lower leg. It acts as a synergist of the gluteus medius and iliopsoas in flexing and abducting the thigh. The movement of the eyeball is under the control of the extrinsic eye muscles , which originate outside the eye and insert onto the outer surface of the white of the eye. These muscles are located inside the eye socket and cannot be seen on any part of the visible eyeball Figure 3 and Table 3. If you have ever been to a doctor who held up a finger and asked you to follow it up, down, and to both sides, he or she is checking to make sure your eye muscles are acting in a coordinated pattern. In anatomical terminology, chewing is called mastication. Muscles involved in chewing must be able to exert enough pressure to bite through and then chew food before it is swallowed Figure 4 and Table 4. The masseter muscle is the main muscle used for chewing because it elevates the mandible lower jaw to close the mouth, and it is assisted by the temporalis muscle, which retracts the mandible. You can feel the temporalis move by putting your fingers to your temple as you chew. Although the masseter and temporalis are responsible for elevating and closing the jaw to break food into digestible pieces, the medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles provide assistance in chewing and moving food within the mouth. Although the tongue is obviously important for tasting food, it is also necessary for mastication, deglutition swallowing , and speech Figure 5 and Figure 6. Because it is so moveable, the tongue facilitates complex speech patterns and sounds. Tongue muscles can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from outside origins, and the intrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from origins within it. The extrinsic muscles move the whole tongue in different directions, whereas the intrinsic muscles allow the tongue to change its shape such as, curling the tongue in a loop or flattening it. The styloglossus originates on the styloid bone, and allows upward and backward motion. The palatoglossus originates on the soft palate to elevate the back of the tongue, and the hyoglossus originates on the hyoid bone to move the tongue downward and flatten it. Anesthesia and the Tongue Muscles Before surgery, a patient must be made ready for general anesthesia. Among the muscles affected during general anesthesia are those that are necessary for breathing and moving the tongue. Under anesthesia, the tongue can relax and partially or fully block the airway, and the muscles of respiration may not move the diaphragm or chest wall. To avoid possible complications, the safest procedure to use on a patient is called endotracheal intubation. Post-surgery, the anesthesiologist gradually changes the mixture of the gases that keep the patient unconscious, and when the muscles of respiration begin to function, the tube is removed. It still takes about 30 minutes for a patient to wake up, and for breathing muscles to regain control of respiration. After surgery, most people have a sore or scratchy throat for a few days. The muscles of the anterior neck assist in deglutition swallowing and speech by controlling the positions of the larynx voice box , and the hyoid bone, a horseshoe-shaped bone that functions as a solid foundation on which the tongue can move. The muscles of the neck are categorized according to their position relative to the hyoid bone Figure 7. Suprahyoid muscles are superior to it, and the infrahyoid muscles are located inferiorly. The suprahyoid muscles raise the hyoid bone, the floor of the mouth, and the larynx during deglutition. These include the digastric muscle, which has anterior and posterior bellies that work to elevate the hyoid bone and larynx when one swallows; it also depresses the mandible. The stylohyoid muscle moves the hyoid bone posteriorly, elevating the larynx, and the mylohyoid muscle lifts it and helps press the tongue to the top of the mouth. The geniohyoid depresses the mandible in addition to raising and pulling the hyoid bone anteriorly. The facial muscles include: The platysma is supplied by the facial nerve. Although it is mostly in the neck and can be grouped with the neck muscles by location, it can be considered a muscle of facial expression due to its common nerve supply. The stylohyoid muscle , stapedius and posterior belly of the digastric muscle are also supplied by the facial nerve, but are not considered muscles of facial expression. An inability to form facial expressions on one side of the face may be the first sign of damage to the nerve of these muscles. Damage to the facial nerve results in facial paralysis of the muscles of facial expression on the involved side. Paralysis is the loss of voluntary muscle action; the facial nerve has become damaged permanently or temporarily. This damage can occur with a stroke , Bell palsy , or parotid salivary gland cancer malignant neoplasm because the facial nerve travels through the gland. The parotid gland can also be damaged permanently by surgery or temporarily by trauma. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Facial muscles Head..

The spinalis group includes the Origin and insertion of facial muscles capitis, the spinalis cervicis, and the spinalis thoracis. The transversospinales include the semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, and rotatores.

The segmental muscles include the interspinales and intertransversarii. Finally, the scalenes include the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene.

It is a complex job to balance the body on two feet and walk upright. Muscles of the Abdomen. On the flanks of the body, medial to the rectus abdominis, the abdominal wall is composed of three layers.

The external oblique muscles form the superficial layer, while the internal oblique muscles form the middle layer, and the transverses abdominus forms the deepest layer. There are three flat skeletal muscles in the antero-lateral wall of the abdomen. This arrangement of three bands of muscles in different orientations allows various movements and https://lesbian.caca.press/page12730-culicivy.php of the trunk.

The three layers of muscle also help to protect the internal abdominal organs in an area where there is no bone. Www.indian official girls booty and fuck images. The skeletal muscles are divided into axial muscles of the trunk and head and appendicular muscles of the arms and legs categories. This system reflects the bones of the skeleton Origin and insertion of facial muscles, which are also arranged in this manner.

Origin and insertion of facial muscles

The axial muscles are grouped based on location, function, learn more here both. Some of the axial muscles may seem to blur the boundaries because they cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The first grouping of the axial muscles you will review includes the muscles of the head and neck, then you will review the muscles of the vertebral column, and finally you will review the oblique and rectus click. The origins of the muscles of facial expression are on the Origin and insertion of facial muscles of the skull remember, the origin of a muscle does not move.

The insertions of these muscles have fibers intertwined with connective tissue and the dermis of the skin. Because the muscles insert in the skin rather than on bone, when they contract, the skin moves to create facial expression Figure 1. The orbicularis oris is a circular muscle that moves the lips, and the orbicularis oculi is a circular muscle that closes the eye.

The occipitofrontalis muscle moves up the scalp and Origin and insertion of facial muscles.

Youporn assfucking Watch Sex Movies Cheney Sex. Tongue muscles are both extrinsic and intrinsic. The genioglossus depresses the tongue and moves it anteriorly; the styloglossus lifts the tongue and retracts it; the palatoglossus elevates the back of the tongue; and the hyoglossus depresses and flattens it. The muscles of the anterior neck facilitate swallowing and speech, stabilize the hyoid bone and position the larynx. The muscles of the neck stabilize and move the head. The sternocleidomastoid divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles. The muscles of the back and neck that move the vertebral column are complex, overlapping, and can be divided into five groups. The splenius group includes the splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis. The erector spinae has three subgroups. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis, the iliocostalis thoracis, and the iliocostalis lumborum. The longissimus group includes the longissimus capitis, the longissimus cervicis, and the longissimus thoracis. The spinalis group includes the spinalis capitis, the spinalis cervicis, and the spinalis thoracis. The transversospinales include the semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, and rotatores. The segmental muscles include the interspinales and intertransversarii. Finally, the scalenes include the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Chapter The Muscular System. Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Identify the axial muscles of the face, head, and neck Identify the movement and function of the face, head, and neck muscles. Review Questions 1. Which of the following is a prime mover in head flexion? Where is the inferior oblique muscle located? What is the action of the masseter? What is the function of the erector spinae? Critical Thinking Questions 1. Explain the difference between axial and appendicular muscles. Describe the muscles of the anterior neck. Why are the muscles of the face different from typical skeletal muscle? The muscles of the anterior neck are arranged to facilitate swallowing and speech. Hagerstown, MD: Muscles of the head. Oblique inferior superior Rectus superior inferior medial lateral Levator palpebrae superioris superior tarsal. Masseter Temporalis sphenomandibularis Pterygoid lateral medial Fascia masseteric temporal. Auricular anterior superior posterior Temporoparietalis. Occipitofrontalis occipitalis frontalis Orbicularis oculi depressor supercilii Corrugator supercilii. Procerus Nasalis dilator naris Depressor septi nasi Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi. Levator anguli oris Levator labii superioris Zygomaticus major minor. Orbicularis oris Risorius Buccinator. Depressor anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Mentalis Transversus menti. Veli palatini tensor levator Musculus uvulae Palatopharyngeus Palatoglossus. What muscle Originates on the Zygomatic Arch Inserts on the lateral surface of the mandible? What muscle Originates on the Sphenoid Bone and Inserts on the anterior surface of the mandible condyle? What muscle Originates on the Fascia in the Upper Chest and Inserts on the Lower border of the mandible and the skin around the mouth? What muscle Originates on the Temporal Bone and Inserts on the Coronoid process and anterior ramus of mandible? What muscle Originates on the Outer surfaces of the mandible and maxilla and Inserts on the Orbicularis Oris? What muscle Originates on the Spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae and Inserts on the Mastoid process of the temporal bone and occipital bone? What muscle Originates on the processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae and Inserts on the occipital bone? What muscle Originates on the anterior surface of the sternum and upper clavicle and Inserts on the mastoid process of the temporal bone? The external intercostals are located laterally on the sides of the body. The internal intercostals are located medially near the sternum. The innermost intercostals are located deep to both the internal and external intercostals. Its openings include the anal canal and urethra, and the vagina in women. The levator ani is considered the most important muscle of the pelvic floor because it supports the pelvic viscera. This muscle also creates skeletal muscle sphincters at the urethra and anus. Muscles of the Pelvic Floor. The pelvic floor muscles support the pelvic organs, resist intra-abdominal pressure, and work as sphincters for the urethra, rectum, and vagina. The perineum is also divided into superficial and deep layers with some of the muscles common to men and women Figure 6. Figure 5. Muscles of the Perineum. The perineum muscles play roles in urination in both sexes, ejaculation in men, and vaginal contraction in women. Muscles of the Perineum Common to Men and Women. Made of skin, fascia, and four pairs of muscle, the anterior abdominal wall protects the organs located in the abdomen and moves the vertebral column. These muscles include the rectus abdominis, which extends through the entire length of the trunk, the external oblique, the internal oblique, and the transversus abdominus. The quadratus lumborum forms the posterior abdominal wall. The muscles of the thorax play a large role in breathing, especially the dome-shaped diaphragm. When it contracts and flattens, the volume inside the pleural cavities increases, which decreases the pressure within them. As a result, air will flow into the lungs. The external and internal intercostal muscles span the space between the ribs and help change the shape of the rib cage and the volume-pressure ratio inside the pleural cavities during inspiration and expiration. Describe the fascicle arrangement in the muscles of the abdominal wall. How do they relate to each other? Muscles of the shoulder and upper limb can be divided into four groups: The girdle creates a base from which the head of the humerus, in its ball-and-socket joint with the glenoid fossa of the scapula, can move the arm in multiple directions. When the rhomboids are contracted, your scapula moves medially, which can pull the shoulder and upper limb posteriorly. Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle. The muscles that stabilize the pectoral girdle make it a steady base on which other muscles can move the arm. Note that the pectoralis major and deltoid, which move the humerus, are cut here to show the deeper positioning muscles. The two axial muscles are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. Muscles That Move the Humerus. The muscles that move the humerus inferiorly generally originate from middle or lower back e. The rest of the shoulder muscles originate on the scapula and help to move the arm. Although the shoulder joint allows a great deal of freedom of movement due to the shallow glenoid cavity it is extremely vulnerable to downward dislocation. When baseball pitchers undergo shoulder surgery it is usually on the rotator cuff, which becomes pinched and inflamed, and may tear away from the bone due to the repetitive motion of bringing the arm overhead to throw a fast pitch. The forearm, made of the radius and ulna bones, has four main types of action at the hinge of the elbow joint: When the forearm faces anteriorly, it is supinated. When the forearm faces posteriorly, it is pronated. The forearm flexors include the biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis. The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis flex the forearm. Muscles That Move the Forearm. The muscles originating in the upper arm flex, extend, pronate, and supinate the forearm. The muscles originating in the forearm move the wrists, hands, and fingers. Wrist, hand, and finger movements are facilitated by two groups of muscles. The palm is the origin of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. These make up the bulk of the forearm. However, repetitive movement with poor ergonomics can irritate the tendons of these muscles as they slide back and forth with the carpal tunnel of the anterior wrist and pinch the median nerve, which also travels through the tunnel, causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the wrist and extend into the hand. These muscles allow your fingers to make precise movements for actions, such as typing or writing. These muscles are divided into three groups. The movements of the thumb play an integral role in most precise movements of the hand. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand. The intrinsic muscles of the hand both originate and insert within the hand. These muscles provide the fine motor control of the fingers by flexing, extending, abducting, and adducting the more distal finger and thumb segments. The clavicle and scapula make up the pectoral girdle, which provides a stable origin for the muscles that move the humerus. The muscles that position and stabilize the pectoral girdle are located on the thorax. The anterior thoracic muscles are the subclavius, pectoralis minor, and the serratus anterior. The posterior thoracic muscles are the trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, and rhomboid minor. Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint to move the humerus. The ones that originate on the axial skeleton are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. The deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, and coracobrachialis originate on the scapula. The extensors are the triceps brachii and anconeus. The pronators are the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus. The supinator is the only one that turns the forearm anteriorly. The extrinsic muscles of the hands originate along the forearm and insert into the hand in order to facilitate crude movements of the wrists, hands, and fingers. The superficial anterior compartment of the forearm produces flexion. These muscles are the flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and the flexor digitorum superficialis. The deep anterior compartment produces flexion as well. These are the flexor pollicis longus and the flexor digitorum profundus. The rest of the compartments produce extension. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris are the muscles found in the superficial posterior compartment. The deep posterior compartment includes the abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and the extensor indicis. Finally, the intrinsic muscles of the hands allow our fingers to make precise movements, such as typing and writing. They both originate and insert within the hand. The thenar muscles, which are located on the lateral part of the palm, are the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, and adductor pollicis. The hypothenar muscles, which are located on the medial part of the palm, are the abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi. The intermediate muscles, located in the middle of the palm, are the lumbricals, palmar interossei, and dorsal interossei. Comparatively, there is much more movement at the pectoral girdle than at the pelvic girdle. There is very little movement of the pelvic girdle because of its connection with the sacrum at the base of the axial skeleton and because the deep acetabulum provides a stable point of articulation with the head of the femur. If the center of gravity were not to remain fixed, standing up would be difficult. Most muscles that insert on the femur the thigh bone and move it, originate on the pelvic girdle. Hip and Thigh Muscles. The large and powerful muscles of the hip that move the femur generally originate on the pelvic girdle and insert into the femur. The muscles that move the lower leg typically originate on the femur and insert into the bones of the knee joint. The anterior muscles of the femur extend the lower leg but also aid in flexing the thigh. The posterior muscles of the femur flex the lower leg but also aid in extending the thigh. A combination of gluteal and thigh muscles also adduct, abduct, and rotate the thigh and lower leg. It acts as a synergist of the gluteus medius and iliopsoas in flexing and abducting the thigh. The adductor longus also flexes the thigh, whereas the adductor magnus extends it..

The muscle has a frontal belly and an occipital near the occipital bone on the posterior part of the Origin and insertion of facial muscles belly. In other words, there is a muscle on the forehead frontalis and one on the back of the head occipitalisbut there Origin and insertion of facial muscles no muscle across the top of the head. The physicians originally studying human anatomy thought the skull looked like an apple.

The majority of the face is composed of the buccinator muscle, which compresses the cheek. This muscle allows you to whistle, blow, and suck; and it contributes to the action of chewing. There are several small facial muscles, one of which is the corrugator superciliiwhich is the prime mover of the eyebrows.

Pornsnapchats Watch Porn Movies Xxxix Video. The muscles of the neck stabilize and move the head. The sternocleidomastoid divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles. The muscles of the back and neck that move the vertebral column are complex, overlapping, and can be divided into five groups. The splenius group includes the splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis. The erector spinae has three subgroups. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis, the iliocostalis thoracis, and the iliocostalis lumborum. The longissimus group includes the longissimus capitis, the longissimus cervicis, and the longissimus thoracis. The spinalis group includes the spinalis capitis, the spinalis cervicis, and the spinalis thoracis. The transversospinales include the semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, and rotatores. The segmental muscles include the interspinales and intertransversarii. Finally, the scalenes include the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene. It is a complex job to balance the body on two feet and walk upright. Muscles of the Abdomen. On the flanks of the body, medial to the rectus abdominis, the abdominal wall is composed of three layers. The external oblique muscles form the superficial layer, while the internal oblique muscles form the middle layer, and the transverses abdominus forms the deepest layer. There are three flat skeletal muscles in the antero-lateral wall of the abdomen. This arrangement of three bands of muscles in different orientations allows various movements and rotations of the trunk. The three layers of muscle also help to protect the internal abdominal organs in an area where there is no bone. This part of the core plays a key role in stabilizing the rest of the body and maintaining posture. Physical Therapists Those who have a muscle or joint injury will most likely be sent to a physical therapist PT after seeing their regular doctor. Many PTs also specialize in sports injuries. If you injured your shoulder while you were kayaking, the first thing a physical therapist would do during your first visit is assess the functionality of the joint. The range of motion of a particular joint refers to the normal movements the joint performs. The PT will ask you to abduct and adduct, circumduct, and flex and extend the arm. The first step in physical therapy will probably be applying a heat pack to the injured site, which acts much like a warm-up to draw blood to the area, to enhance healing. You will be instructed to do a series of exercises to continue the therapy at home, followed by icing, to decrease inflammation and swelling, which will continue for several weeks. When physical therapy is complete, the PT will do an exit exam and send a detailed report on the improved range of motion and return of normal limb function to your doctor. Gradually, as the injury heals, the shoulder will begin to function correctly. A PT works closely with patients to help them get back to their normal level of physical activity. The muscles of the chest serve to facilitate breathing by changing the volume of the thoracic cavity Table 7. It separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and is dome-shaped at rest. The superior surface of the diaphragm is convex, creating the elevated floor of the thoracic cavity. The inferior surface is concave, creating the curved roof of the abdominal cavity. Figure 2. Muscles of the Diaphragm. The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. When the abdominal muscles contract, the pressure cannot push the diaphragm up, so it increases pressure on the intestinal tract defecation , urinary tract urination , or reproductive tract childbirth. The inferior surface of the pericardial sac and the inferior surfaces of the pleural membranes parietal pleura fuse onto the central tendon of the diaphragm. To the sides of the tendon are the skeletal muscle portions of the diaphragm, which insert into the tendon while having a number of origins including the xiphoid process of the sternum anteriorly, the inferior six ribs and their cartilages laterally, and the lumbar vertebrae and 12th ribs posteriorly. The diaphragm also includes three openings for the passage of structures between the thorax and the abdomen. The aorta, thoracic duct, and azygous vein pass through the aortic hiatus of the posterior diaphragm. The principal role of the intercostal muscles is to assist in breathing by changing the dimensions of the rib cage Figure 3. Intercostal Muscles. The external intercostals are located laterally on the sides of the body. The internal intercostals are located medially near the sternum. The innermost intercostals are located deep to both the internal and external intercostals. Its openings include the anal canal and urethra, and the vagina in women. The levator ani is considered the most important muscle of the pelvic floor because it supports the pelvic viscera. This muscle also creates skeletal muscle sphincters at the urethra and anus. Muscles of the Pelvic Floor. The pelvic floor muscles support the pelvic organs, resist intra-abdominal pressure, and work as sphincters for the urethra, rectum, and vagina. The perineum is also divided into superficial and deep layers with some of the muscles common to men and women Figure 6. Figure 5. Muscles of the Perineum. The perineum muscles play roles in urination in both sexes, ejaculation in men, and vaginal contraction in women. Muscles of the Perineum Common to Men and Women. Made of skin, fascia, and four pairs of muscle, the anterior abdominal wall protects the organs located in the abdomen and moves the vertebral column. These muscles include the rectus abdominis, which extends through the entire length of the trunk, the external oblique, the internal oblique, and the transversus abdominus. The quadratus lumborum forms the posterior abdominal wall. The muscles of the thorax play a large role in breathing, especially the dome-shaped diaphragm. When it contracts and flattens, the volume inside the pleural cavities increases, which decreases the pressure within them. As a result, air will flow into the lungs. The external and internal intercostal muscles span the space between the ribs and help change the shape of the rib cage and the volume-pressure ratio inside the pleural cavities during inspiration and expiration. Describe the fascicle arrangement in the muscles of the abdominal wall. How do they relate to each other? Muscles of the shoulder and upper limb can be divided into four groups: The girdle creates a base from which the head of the humerus, in its ball-and-socket joint with the glenoid fossa of the scapula, can move the arm in multiple directions. When the rhomboids are contracted, your scapula moves medially, which can pull the shoulder and upper limb posteriorly. Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle. The muscles that stabilize the pectoral girdle make it a steady base on which other muscles can move the arm. Note that the pectoralis major and deltoid, which move the humerus, are cut here to show the deeper positioning muscles. The two axial muscles are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. Muscles That Move the Humerus. The muscles that move the humerus inferiorly generally originate from middle or lower back e. The rest of the shoulder muscles originate on the scapula and help to move the arm. Although the shoulder joint allows a great deal of freedom of movement due to the shallow glenoid cavity it is extremely vulnerable to downward dislocation. When baseball pitchers undergo shoulder surgery it is usually on the rotator cuff, which becomes pinched and inflamed, and may tear away from the bone due to the repetitive motion of bringing the arm overhead to throw a fast pitch. The forearm, made of the radius and ulna bones, has four main types of action at the hinge of the elbow joint: When the forearm faces anteriorly, it is supinated. When the forearm faces posteriorly, it is pronated. The forearm flexors include the biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis. The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis flex the forearm. Muscles That Move the Forearm. The muscles originating in the upper arm flex, extend, pronate, and supinate the forearm. The muscles originating in the forearm move the wrists, hands, and fingers. Wrist, hand, and finger movements are facilitated by two groups of muscles. The palm is the origin of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. These make up the bulk of the forearm. Facial muscles Head. This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology. Chung Gross Anatomy Board Review. Hagerstown, MD: Muscles of the head. Oblique inferior superior Rectus superior inferior medial lateral Levator palpebrae superioris superior tarsal. Masseter Temporalis sphenomandibularis Pterygoid lateral medial Fascia masseteric temporal. Auricular anterior superior posterior Temporoparietalis. Occipitofrontalis occipitalis frontalis Orbicularis oculi depressor supercilii Corrugator supercilii. Procerus Nasalis dilator naris Depressor septi nasi Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi. Anesthesia and the Tongue Muscles Before surgery, a patient must be made ready for general anesthesia. Among the muscles affected during general anesthesia are those that are necessary for breathing and moving the tongue. Under anesthesia, the tongue can relax and partially or fully block the airway, and the muscles of respiration may not move the diaphragm or chest wall. To avoid possible complications, the safest procedure to use on a patient is called endotracheal intubation. Post-surgery, the anesthesiologist gradually changes the mixture of the gases that keep the patient unconscious, and when the muscles of respiration begin to function, the tube is removed. It still takes about 30 minutes for a patient to wake up, and for breathing muscles to regain control of respiration. After surgery, most people have a sore or scratchy throat for a few days. The muscles of the anterior neck assist in deglutition swallowing and speech by controlling the positions of the larynx voice box , and the hyoid bone, a horseshoe-shaped bone that functions as a solid foundation on which the tongue can move. The muscles of the neck are categorized according to their position relative to the hyoid bone Figure 7. Suprahyoid muscles are superior to it, and the infrahyoid muscles are located inferiorly. The suprahyoid muscles raise the hyoid bone, the floor of the mouth, and the larynx during deglutition. These include the digastric muscle, which has anterior and posterior bellies that work to elevate the hyoid bone and larynx when one swallows; it also depresses the mandible. The stylohyoid muscle moves the hyoid bone posteriorly, elevating the larynx, and the mylohyoid muscle lifts it and helps press the tongue to the top of the mouth. The geniohyoid depresses the mandible in addition to raising and pulling the hyoid bone anteriorly. The strap-like infrahyoid muscles generally depress the hyoid bone and control the position of the larynx. The omohyoid muscle, which has superior and inferior bellies, depresses the hyoid bone in conjunction with the sternohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. The head, attached to the top of the vertebral column, is balanced, moved, and rotated by the neck muscles Table 5. When these muscles act unilaterally, the head rotates. When they contract bilaterally, the head flexes or extends. The major muscle that laterally flexes and rotates the head is the sternocleidomastoid. In addition, both muscles working together are the flexors of the head. Place your fingers on both sides of the neck and turn your head to the left and to the right. You will feel the movement originate there. This muscle divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles when viewed from the side Figure 8. The posterior muscles of the neck are primarily concerned with head movements, like extension. The back muscles stabilize and move the vertebral column, and are grouped according to the lengths and direction of the fascicles. The splenius muscles originate at the midline and run laterally and superiorly to their insertions. From the sides and the back of the neck, the splenius capitis inserts onto the head region, and the splenius cervicis extends onto the cervical region. These muscles can extend the head, laterally flex it, and rotate it Figure 9. Survey Maker Flashcards See All. Jul 30, Please take the quiz to rate it. All questions 5 questions 6 questions 7 questions 8 questions 9 questions 10 questions. Feedback During the Quiz End of Quiz. Play as Quiz Flashcard. Title of New Duplicated Quiz:. Duplicate Quiz Cancel..

Place your finger on your eyebrows at the point of the bridge of the nose. Raise your eyebrows as if you were surprised and lower your eyebrows as if you were frowning. With these movements, you can feel the action of the corrugator supercilli. Additional muscles of facial expression are presented in Figure 2. The movement of the eyeball is under the control of the extrinsic eye muscleswhich originate outside the eye and insert onto the outer surface of the white of the eye.

These muscles are located inside the eye socket and cannot be seen on any part of the visible eyeball Figure 3 and Table 3. If you have ever been to a doctor who held up a finger and asked you to follow it up, down, and to both sides, he or she Origin and insertion of facial muscles checking to make Origin and insertion of facial muscles your eye muscles are acting in a coordinated pattern.

In anatomical terminology, chewing is called mastication. Muscles involved in chewing must be able to exert enough pressure to bite through and then Origin and insertion of facial muscles food before it is swallowed Figure Origin and insertion of facial muscles and Table 4.

The masseter muscle is the main muscle used for chewing because it elevates the mandible lower jaw to close the mouth, and it is assisted by the temporalis muscle, which retracts the mandible. You can feel the temporalis move by putting your fingers to your temple as you chew.

Although the masseter and temporalis are responsible for elevating and closing the jaw to break food into digestible pieces, the medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles provide assistance in chewing and moving food within the mouth.

Although the tongue is obviously important for tasting food, it is also necessary for mastication, deglutition swallowingand speech Figure 5 and Figure 6. Because it is so moveable, the tongue facilitates complex speech patterns and sounds. Tongue muscles can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from outside origins, and the intrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from origins within it. The extrinsic muscles move the whole tongue in different directions, whereas the intrinsic muscles allow the tongue to change its shape such as, curling the tongue in a loop or flattening it.

The styloglossus originates on the styloid bone, and allows upward and backward motion. The palatoglossus originates on the soft palate to elevate the back of the tongue, and the hyoglossus originates on the hyoid bone to move the tongue downward and flatten it.

Anesthesia and the Tongue Muscles Before surgery, a patient must be made ready for general anesthesia. Among the muscles affected during general anesthesia click the following article those that are necessary for breathing and moving the tongue.

Under anesthesia, the tongue can relax and partially or fully block the airway, and the muscles of respiration may not move the diaphragm or chest wall. To avoid possible complications, the safest procedure to use on a patient is called endotracheal intubation. Post-surgery, the anesthesiologist gradually changes the mixture of the gases that Origin and insertion of facial muscles the patient unconscious, and when the muscles of respiration begin to function, the tube is removed.

It still takes about 30 minutes for a patient to wake up, and for breathing muscles to regain control of respiration.

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After surgery, most people have a sore or scratchy throat for a few days. The muscles of the anterior neck assist in deglutition swallowing and speech by controlling the positions of the larynx voice boxand the hyoid bone, a horseshoe-shaped bone that functions as a Origin and insertion of facial muscles foundation on which the tongue can move. The muscles of the neck are categorized according to their position relative to the hyoid bone Figure 7.

Suprahyoid source are superior to it, and the infrahyoid muscles are located inferiorly. The suprahyoid muscles raise the hyoid bone, the floor of the mouth, and the larynx during deglutition. These include the digastric muscle, which has anterior and posterior bellies that work to elevate the hyoid bone and larynx when one swallows; it Origin and insertion of facial muscles depresses the mandible.

The stylohyoid muscle moves the hyoid bone posteriorly, elevating the larynx, and the mylohyoid muscle lifts it and helps press the tongue to the top of the mouth. The geniohyoid depresses the mandible in addition to raising and pulling the hyoid bone anteriorly. The strap-like infrahyoid muscles generally depress the hyoid bone and control the position of the larynx.

Nobita Xxxvxxnx Watch PORN Videos Xxxvideo Kuwait. Muscles of the Neck and Back. The large, complex muscles of the neck and back move the head, shoulders, and vertebral column. The erector spinae group forms the majority of the muscle mass of the back and it is the primary extensor of the vertebral column. It controls extension, lateral flexion, and rotation of the vertebral column, and maintains the lumbar curve. The erector spinae comprises the iliocostalis laterally placed group, the longissimus intermediately placed group, and the spinalis medially placed group. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis , associated with the cervical region; the iliocostalis thoracis , associated with the thoracic region; and the iliocostalis lumborum , associated with the lumbar region. The three muscles of the longissimus group are the longissimus capitis , associated with the head region; the longissimus cervicis , associated with the cervical region; and the longissimus thoracis , associated with the thoracic region. The third group, the spinalis group , comprises the spinalis capitis head region , the spinalis cervicis cervical region , and the spinalis thoracis thoracic region. The transversospinales muscles run from the transverse processes to the spinous processes of the vertebrae. Similar to the erector spinae muscles, the semispinalis muscles in this group are named for the areas of the body with which they are associated. The semispinalis muscles include the semispinalis capitis , the semispinalis cervicis , and the semispinalis thoracis. The multifidus muscle of the lumbar region helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column. Important in the stabilization of the vertebral column is the segmental muscle group , which includes the interspinales and intertransversarii muscles. These muscles bring together the spinous and transverse processes of each consecutive vertebra. Finally, the scalene muscles work together to flex, laterally flex, and rotate the head. They also contribute to deep inhalation. The scalene muscles include the anterior scalene muscle anterior to the middle scalene , the middle scalene muscle the longest, intermediate between the anterior and posterior scalenes , and the posterior scalene muscle the smallest, posterior to the middle scalene. Muscles are either axial muscles or appendicular. The axial muscles are grouped based on location, function, or both. Some axial muscles cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The muscles of the head and neck are all axial. The muscles in the face create facial expression by inserting into the skin rather than onto bone. Muscles that move the eyeballs are extrinsic, meaning they originate outside of the eye and insert onto it. Tongue muscles are both extrinsic and intrinsic. The genioglossus depresses the tongue and moves it anteriorly; the styloglossus lifts the tongue and retracts it; the palatoglossus elevates the back of the tongue; and the hyoglossus depresses and flattens it. The muscles of the anterior neck facilitate swallowing and speech, stabilize the hyoid bone and position the larynx. The muscles of the neck stabilize and move the head. The sternocleidomastoid divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles. The muscles of the back and neck that move the vertebral column are complex, overlapping, and can be divided into five groups. The splenius group includes the splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis. The erector spinae has three subgroups. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis, the iliocostalis thoracis, and the iliocostalis lumborum. The longissimus group includes the longissimus capitis, the longissimus cervicis, and the longissimus thoracis. The spinalis group includes the spinalis capitis, the spinalis cervicis, and the spinalis thoracis. The transversospinales include the semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, and rotatores. The segmental muscles include the interspinales and intertransversarii. Finally, the scalenes include the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene. It is a complex job to balance the body on two feet and walk upright. Muscles of the Abdomen. On the flanks of the body, medial to the rectus abdominis, the abdominal wall is composed of three layers. The external oblique muscles form the superficial layer, while the internal oblique muscles form the middle layer, and the transverses abdominus forms the deepest layer. There are three flat skeletal muscles in the antero-lateral wall of the abdomen. This arrangement of three bands of muscles in different orientations allows various movements and rotations of the trunk. The three layers of muscle also help to protect the internal abdominal organs in an area where there is no bone. This part of the core plays a key role in stabilizing the rest of the body and maintaining posture. Physical Therapists Those who have a muscle or joint injury will most likely be sent to a physical therapist PT after seeing their regular doctor. Many PTs also specialize in sports injuries. If you injured your shoulder while you were kayaking, the first thing a physical therapist would do during your first visit is assess the functionality of the joint. The range of motion of a particular joint refers to the normal movements the joint performs. The PT will ask you to abduct and adduct, circumduct, and flex and extend the arm. The first step in physical therapy will probably be applying a heat pack to the injured site, which acts much like a warm-up to draw blood to the area, to enhance healing. You will be instructed to do a series of exercises to continue the therapy at home, followed by icing, to decrease inflammation and swelling, which will continue for several weeks. When physical therapy is complete, the PT will do an exit exam and send a detailed report on the improved range of motion and return of normal limb function to your doctor. Gradually, as the injury heals, the shoulder will begin to function correctly. A PT works closely with patients to help them get back to their normal level of physical activity. The muscles of the chest serve to facilitate breathing by changing the volume of the thoracic cavity Table 7. It separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and is dome-shaped at rest. The superior surface of the diaphragm is convex, creating the elevated floor of the thoracic cavity. The inferior surface is concave, creating the curved roof of the abdominal cavity. Figure 2. Muscles of the Diaphragm. The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. When the abdominal muscles contract, the pressure cannot push the diaphragm up, so it increases pressure on the intestinal tract defecation , urinary tract urination , or reproductive tract childbirth. The inferior surface of the pericardial sac and the inferior surfaces of the pleural membranes parietal pleura fuse onto the central tendon of the diaphragm. To the sides of the tendon are the skeletal muscle portions of the diaphragm, which insert into the tendon while having a number of origins including the xiphoid process of the sternum anteriorly, the inferior six ribs and their cartilages laterally, and the lumbar vertebrae and 12th ribs posteriorly. The diaphragm also includes three openings for the passage of structures between the thorax and the abdomen. The aorta, thoracic duct, and azygous vein pass through the aortic hiatus of the posterior diaphragm. The principal role of the intercostal muscles is to assist in breathing by changing the dimensions of the rib cage Figure 3. Intercostal Muscles. The external intercostals are located laterally on the sides of the body. The internal intercostals are located medially near the sternum. The innermost intercostals are located deep to both the internal and external intercostals. Its openings include the anal canal and urethra, and the vagina in women. The levator ani is considered the most important muscle of the pelvic floor because it supports the pelvic viscera. This muscle also creates skeletal muscle sphincters at the urethra and anus. Muscles of the Pelvic Floor. The pelvic floor muscles support the pelvic organs, resist intra-abdominal pressure, and work as sphincters for the urethra, rectum, and vagina. The perineum is also divided into superficial and deep layers with some of the muscles common to men and women Figure 6. Figure 5. Muscles of the Perineum. The perineum muscles play roles in urination in both sexes, ejaculation in men, and vaginal contraction in women. Muscles of the Perineum Common to Men and Women. Made of skin, fascia, and four pairs of muscle, the anterior abdominal wall protects the organs located in the abdomen and moves the vertebral column. These muscles include the rectus abdominis, which extends through the entire length of the trunk, the external oblique, the internal oblique, and the transversus abdominus. The quadratus lumborum forms the posterior abdominal wall. The muscles of the thorax play a large role in breathing, especially the dome-shaped diaphragm. When it contracts and flattens, the volume inside the pleural cavities increases, which decreases the pressure within them. As a result, air will flow into the lungs. Although the tongue is obviously important for tasting food, it is also necessary for mastication, deglutition swallowing , and speech Figure 5 and Figure 6. Because it is so moveable, the tongue facilitates complex speech patterns and sounds. Tongue muscles can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from outside origins, and the intrinsic tongue muscles insert into the tongue from origins within it. The extrinsic muscles move the whole tongue in different directions, whereas the intrinsic muscles allow the tongue to change its shape such as, curling the tongue in a loop or flattening it. The styloglossus originates on the styloid bone, and allows upward and backward motion. The palatoglossus originates on the soft palate to elevate the back of the tongue, and the hyoglossus originates on the hyoid bone to move the tongue downward and flatten it. Anesthesia and the Tongue Muscles Before surgery, a patient must be made ready for general anesthesia. Among the muscles affected during general anesthesia are those that are necessary for breathing and moving the tongue. Under anesthesia, the tongue can relax and partially or fully block the airway, and the muscles of respiration may not move the diaphragm or chest wall. To avoid possible complications, the safest procedure to use on a patient is called endotracheal intubation. Post-surgery, the anesthesiologist gradually changes the mixture of the gases that keep the patient unconscious, and when the muscles of respiration begin to function, the tube is removed. It still takes about 30 minutes for a patient to wake up, and for breathing muscles to regain control of respiration. After surgery, most people have a sore or scratchy throat for a few days. The muscles of the anterior neck assist in deglutition swallowing and speech by controlling the positions of the larynx voice box , and the hyoid bone, a horseshoe-shaped bone that functions as a solid foundation on which the tongue can move. The muscles of the neck are categorized according to their position relative to the hyoid bone Figure 7. Suprahyoid muscles are superior to it, and the infrahyoid muscles are located inferiorly. The suprahyoid muscles raise the hyoid bone, the floor of the mouth, and the larynx during deglutition. These include the digastric muscle, which has anterior and posterior bellies that work to elevate the hyoid bone and larynx when one swallows; it also depresses the mandible. The stylohyoid muscle moves the hyoid bone posteriorly, elevating the larynx, and the mylohyoid muscle lifts it and helps press the tongue to the top of the mouth. The geniohyoid depresses the mandible in addition to raising and pulling the hyoid bone anteriorly. The strap-like infrahyoid muscles generally depress the hyoid bone and control the position of the larynx. The omohyoid muscle, which has superior and inferior bellies, depresses the hyoid bone in conjunction with the sternohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. The head, attached to the top of the vertebral column, is balanced, moved, and rotated by the neck muscles Table 5. When these muscles act unilaterally, the head rotates. When they contract bilaterally, the head flexes or extends. The major muscle that laterally flexes and rotates the head is the sternocleidomastoid. In addition, both muscles working together are the flexors of the head. Place your fingers on both sides of the neck and turn your head to the left and to the right. Feedback During the Quiz End of Quiz. Play as Quiz Flashcard. Title of New Duplicated Quiz:. Duplicate Quiz Cancel. A copy of this quiz is in your dashboard. Go to My Dashboard. Questions and Answers. Remove Excerpt. Levator anguli oris Levator labii superioris Zygomaticus major minor. Orbicularis oris Risorius Buccinator. Depressor anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Mentalis Transversus menti. Veli palatini tensor levator Musculus uvulae Palatopharyngeus Palatoglossus. Genioglossus Hyoglossus chondroglossus Styloglossus Palatoglossus. Superior longitudinal Inferior longitudinal Transverse Vertical. Authority control TA Retrieved from " https: Muscles of the head and neck Face. Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles with TA98 identifiers..

The omohyoid muscle, which has superior and inferior bellies, depresses the hyoid bone in conjunction with the sternohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. The head, attached to the top of the vertebral column, is balanced, moved, and rotated by the neck muscles Origin and insertion of facial muscles 5. When these muscles act unilaterally, the head rotates. When they contract bilaterally, the head flexes or extends.

The major muscle that laterally flexes and rotates the head is the sternocleidomastoid. In addition, both muscles working together are the flexors of the head. Place your fingers on both Origin and insertion of facial muscles of the neck and turn your head to the left and to the right. You will feel the movement originate there. This muscle divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles when viewed from the side Figure 8. The posterior muscles of article source neck are primarily concerned with head movements, like extension.

The back muscles stabilize and move the vertebral column, and are grouped according to the lengths and direction of the fascicles. The splenius Origin and insertion of facial muscles originate at the midline and run laterally and superiorly to their insertions. From the sides and the back of the neck, the splenius capitis inserts onto the head region, and the splenius cervicis extends onto the cervical region.

These muscles can extend the head, laterally flex it, and rotate it Figure 9. The erector spinae group forms the majority of the muscle mass of the back and it is the primary extensor of the vertebral column.

Facial muscles

It controls flexion, lateral flexion, and Horny french milf of the vertebral column, and maintains the lumbar curve.

The erector Origin and insertion of facial muscles comprises the iliocostalis laterally placed group, the longissimus intermediately placed group, and the spinalis medially placed group.

The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicisassociated with the cervical region; the iliocostalis thoracisassociated with the thoracic region; and the iliocostalis lumborumassociated with the lumbar region. The three muscles of the longissimus group are the longissimus capitisassociated with the head region; the longissimus cervicisassociated with the cervical region; and the longissimus thoracisassociated with the thoracic region.

The third group, the spinalis groupcomprises the spinalis capitis head regionthe spinalis cervicis cervical regionand the spinalis thoracis thoracic region. The transversospinales muscles run from the transverse processes to the spinous processes of the vertebrae.

Similar to the erector spinae muscles, the semispinalis muscles in this group are named for the areas of the body with which they are associated. The semispinalis muscles include the semispinalis capitisthe semispinalis cervicisOrigin and insertion of facial muscles the semispinalis thoracis.

Muscles That Create Facial Expression

The multifidus muscle of the lumbar region helps extend and laterally flex the vertebral column. Important in the stabilization of the vertebral column is the segmental muscle groupwhich includes the interspinales and intertransversarii muscles. These muscles bring together the spinous and transverse processes of each consecutive vertebra.

Finally, the scalene muscles work together to flex, laterally flex, and rotate the head. They also contribute to deep inhalation. The scalene muscles include the anterior scalene muscle anterior to the middle scalenethe middle scalene muscle the longest, intermediate between the anterior and posterior scalenesand the posterior scalene muscle the smallest, posterior to the middle scalene. Muscles are either axial muscles or appendicular.

Some axial muscles cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The muscles of the head and neck are all axial. The muscles in the face create facial expression by inserting into the skin rather than onto bone.

Muscles that move the eyeballs are extrinsic, meaning Origin and insertion of facial muscles originate outside of the eye and insert onto it. Tongue muscles are both extrinsic and intrinsic.

The genioglossus depresses the tongue and moves it anteriorly; the styloglossus lifts the tongue and retracts it; the palatoglossus elevates the back of the tongue; and the hyoglossus Origin and insertion of facial muscles and flattens it.

The muscles of the anterior neck facilitate swallowing more info speech, stabilize the hyoid bone and position the larynx. The Origin and insertion of facial muscles of the neck stabilize and move the head.

The sternocleidomastoid divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles. The muscles of the back and neck that move the vertebral column are complex, overlapping, and can continue reading divided into five groups. The splenius group includes the splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis. The erector spinae has three subgroups. The iliocostalis group includes the iliocostalis cervicis, the iliocostalis thoracis, and the iliocostalis lumborum.

The longissimus group includes the longissimus capitis, the longissimus cervicis, and the longissimus thoracis.

The spinalis group includes the spinalis capitis, the spinalis cervicis, and the spinalis thoracis. The transversospinales include the semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, and rotatores. The segmental muscles include the interspinales and intertransversarii. Finally, the scalenes include the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene.

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